ElizabethWhitehead's Travel Journals


  • 27 years old
  • From Iowa, United States
  • Currently in Ormskirk, United Kingdom


This journal is for the assignments in British Cultural Identities.

Wars, Unions, Roundheads, and the Like

United Kingdom United Kingdom  |  Jun 01, 2010
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War of the Roses

     The War of the Roses, fought from 1455- 1485 was a series of sporadic battles between rival houses in Lancaster and York.  At that time, Henry VI had the crown, but he was mentally unstable and could not effectively rule the country.  The Duke Richard of York then claimed his right to the throne.  The Lancastrians at Court did not want this to happen and fighting ensued.  It ended with the victory of the Lancastrians at the hand of Henry Tudor, who was crowned Henry VII and married Elizabeth of York to try to bring some peace between the houses.  The name "War of the Roses" came from the badges of the houses- A white rose for York and a red rose for Lancaster.  The phrase was not used at the time, but was later made popular in literature.

English Civil War, Roundheads, and Oliver Cromwell

     The English Civil War is acutally composed of three wars between the Parliamentarians and the Royalists.  The Royalists were on the side of the crown and his "divine right to rule" and have absolute power.The parliamentarians, on the other hand, fought for a Parliament based government.  The Parliamentarians came to be known as "roundheads".  The term came from the short hair of some of the Parliamentarians who were Puritans.  Their hair contrasted sharply with the long ringlets of the men at court, and so they were called "roundheads".

     Oliver Cromwell was one such "roundhead".  A military and political leader, Oliver Cromwell came to be the "Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland".  He was a commander and was one of the key people in defeating the Royalists in the English Civil War. 

Union of England and Wales

     The Union of England and Wales was very benificial for England because they acquired the ports of Wales and access to the western sea.  Troubles arised though in matters of the law and deciding whether English law applied to the Welsh and vise versa.  Throughout the years, different laws were passed making them seperate and joining them.  In 1967, it was decided that England does not include Wales by default and should be refered to as "England and Wales."

Dissolution of the Monasteries

     In 1536, King Henry VIII, disbanded the monastaries and seized their assets in all of England, Wales, and Ireland.  He appropriated their income and provided for their former members.  This was the biggest transfer of property in England since the Norman Conquest.  Henry VIII was legal in doing this because of the Act of Supremacy passed in 1534 by Parliment which made him the Supreme Head of the Church of England.  Henry VIII sought to establish royal jurisdiction of the Church.

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